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972 2- 5309410
DIFS Director: email@example.com
Koffman, B.Sc., Superintendent
Arie Zeichner, Ph.D., Commander
Glattstein, M.Sc., Chief Superintendent
Tzipi Kahana, Ph.D., Superintendent
Paper covers advances made in scientific methods applied to forensic
firearms ballistics, chemistry and wound ballistics since the 12th Interpol
Forensic Science Symposium in October 1998. Major forensic laboratories
from around the world were asked to provide both previously published
and unpublished research papers, technical notes, and case reports.
We would like
to thank all the forensic science laboratories and Interpol agencies
that provided us with their articles.
Firearms - Ballistics
published two papers about objective criteria for identification within
single land impressions. He collected data from discharged bullets in
two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images.
The data was used for the assessment of objective criteria
for identification within single land impressions based on total matching
lines, the percentage of matching lines, and consecutive groups of striations
known matches and known non-matches.
implemented the numerical criteria for
identification involving magazine marks.
He concluded that use of numerical criteria is significant for striated
toolmarks having limited information such as magazine marks on fired
discussed the general validity of one proposed objective-criteria
regime - the counting of consecutive matching striations on fired bullets.
Both practical and theoretical considerations are discussed in his study
from the perspective of Bayesian logic.
Manufactured Firearms - The possibility of "carry-over" or
reproduction of sub-class characteristics that occur in consecutively
manufactured barrels was investigated.
studied two barrels, which were consecutively manufactured using gang
broach method. He compared and assessed fired bullets to determine the
presence of sub-class characteristics, according to the conservative
criteria for the identification of striations. In addition, he prepared
a literature review of previous studies dealing with the examination
of bullets fired from consecutively manufactured barrels.
described a test done by a group of 30 firearms examiners from U.S.
nationally accredited forensic laboratories. They examined test bullets discharged from ten consecutively
rifled Ruger P-85 pistol barrels. It was demonstrated that correct comparisons
were made in all cases, and that consecutively rifled gun barrels could
be identified successfully.
and Grew7 studied six consecutively machined Ruger rifle bolts. Comparisons
showed a surprisingly high degree of sub class characteristics
among the bolt faces. However, enough individual characteristics were
present for identification of the bolt
Review - Bonfanti and De-Kinder8,9 prepared a
literature review of
consecutively (or closely) manufactured parts of a firearm and a review
of papers concerning the evolution of characteristics on bullets and
cartridge cases resulting from the discharge of many rounds in a firearm.
Systems for Identification
- The Integrated Ballistic Identification System (IBIS™), which is based on an automated and
computerized image analysis, has inspired firearm examiners to investigate the system performances and
Thompson10 performed studies on the hardware and software components of
and on a technical overview of the IBIS™ technology, trial assessments by law
enforcement agencies, the effect of this technology in actual laboratory
use, and the future use of this technology as a portable field instrument.
(et al.)11, Koffman (et al.)12 and Giverts
(et al.)13, carried out some researches, recommending the followings:
methods to improve the chances of a potential
match, and two methods for the reduction of operator analysis
time at the Signature Analysis Station (SAS) of the IBIS™.
improved methodology for analyzing the IBIS™ Correlation Results and
for setting up a “Reliability Factor” of the IBIS™ Correlation results’.
The “Reliability Factor”, places at the discretion of the firearms examiner
the extent (if any) of the manual search of the open crimes file collection.
method to rank
bullets by calculating the Phase score as an average Phase score using
the existing correlation results. This average
phase scoring can improve the correlation results.
investigated the phenomenon of widely fluctuating scores for cartridge
cases known to have been fired from the same weapon. The research project
was commenced to ascertain the interrelationship between angular positioning
of cartridge cases on the BRASSCATCHER™
stage and the resulting scores generated by the SAS.
to the IBIS and Drugfire systems, several other systems are commercially
available. These databases store images of cartridge cases. One research,
written by Geradts (et al.)15 concentrated on the various methods of
feature selection and pattern recognition used in the comparison procedure.
in his paper Automated Systems of Ballistic Identification defined
the basic measure for the assessment of performance of ballistic analysis
systems as the time required for a "hit" (or connection)
to be obtained, i.e. the linking of a firearm, cartridge case and/or
bullet to a crime.
presented the Australian fireball Firearm Identification System. It
would also allow for the exchange of images between jurisdictions in
Australia. The database is designed to be used with a personal computer,
using off-the-shelf hardware and Microsoft Access, in conjunction with
some custom image capture software.
(et al.)18 presented a system based on the selection of a region of
interest (ROI) by a firearms examiner. The comparisons are partly automatic
and partly done manually by the firearms examiner.
& Equipment & Techniques
A computerized trigger pull-measuring device, which has been developed
by Dvorak Instruments, is becoming popular and beneficial to the firearms
examiners. The TriggerScan™ system supercedes traditional methods
of trigger pull measurement, some of which are subjective in nature.
system is currently being used in the FBI Laboratory to create a database
of trigger-pulls. Once completed, this database will serve as a statistical
reference database for firearms examiners, complementing and supporting
their reports and testimony involving trigger-pull analysis.
of Bullet Striations - De-Kinder (et al.) 22,23,24 suggested a new method
of laser topography, which is based on a profilometer equipped with
a translation and rotational stage, for the following purposes:
obtain characteristic information of the striation marks on bullets.
It was implemented on a 9mm Parabelum bullet. A comparison between the
laser topography results and those obtained using traditional light
microscopy was made. The preliminary results indicated a beneficial
aid to firearms and toolmarks identification.
compare bullet striations for firearms identification purposes. The
system records the topography of the bullet in question using laser
profile meter. Good results were obtained for firearms, which left well-defined
record fingerprints on cartridges. The data is recorded by a UBM - profilometer
with a sensor head, which is positioned along a translation axis, while
the cartridge is rotated by a rotational stage. Once the image is scanned,
it can be enhanced using data processing tools before being added to
an AFIS system.
Bullets25 - 30
A new generation
of lead-free, non-toxic, frangible ammunition in a variety of calibers
is becoming popular in indoor shooting ranges, law enforcement agencies
and in the United States military. This ammunition has been developed
using powder metallurgy techniques for the production of metal matrix
composite simulants for lead.
ammunition was assessed for wounding performance and comparison microscope
for comparison microscope matching, the recovered bullets of these calibers
lacked the individual rifling marks necessary for bullet-to-bullet and/or
bullet-to-gun matching. This fact has made them attractive to those
wishing to use them illegally.
for wounding performance, the results obtained demonstrated that 9mm
and .38 caliber frangible bullets were similar in terms of severity
of wounds caused by regular service ammunition of the same caliber.
The high-velocity .223 caliber rifle bullets resulted in severe wounds,
caused by extensive fragmentation of the bullets in target tissue.
two sites can be used as portals to the firearms examiners, forensic
scientists, students, and trainees:
of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners (AFTE)
The AFTE Journal
published an extended issue on summer 1999, which was dedicated to the
30th Anniversary of the AFTE (1969-1999).
Firearms - Chemistry
of classification of various compositions of GSR particles continued
to be of interest for research. In particular the alleged unique compositions
to GSR of (a) lead, antimony and barium, (b) antimony and barium were
examined among particles produced by fireworks (Mosher et al.31) and
particles collected from various parts of cars and individuals involved
in various automobile related jobs (Garofano et al.32). It was observed
that particular particles of composition (b) might be found, although
in very small amounts, in residues from fireworks and among cars related
particles. Very few particles of composition (a) were found in the residues
of one of the types of the tested fireworks. However, an additional
element of magnesium (unusual to GSR) was present in those particles.
In quite extensive study, Levin et al.33 showed that the composition
of GSR particles from Sintox lead free ammunition is very characteristic
and can be included in the consistent category for classification of
GSR. Zeichner et al.34 showed that there is a small probability of finding
GSR containing a considerable concentration of antimony if the primer
of the fired ammunition is antimony-free, even when the surface of the
bullet is highly enriched by this element. Miayauchi et al.35, demonstrated
contribution of trace elements from smokeless powder to primer residues.
to be the method of choice for the GSR detection and identification
in samples from suspects of shooting in casework. Continuous improvements
in the SEM and the EDX technologies are also reflected in the GSR analysis
by SEM/EDX. Schwoeble et al.36 demonstrated the use of VPSEM for the
GSR detection and identification. Other instrumental techniques have
been studied for the analysis of GSR such as micro-XRF (Flynn et al37,
Charpentier et al.38), ICP/MS (Koons39), FIB (Niewohner et al.40) and
Raman microscopy (Stich et al.41). However, micro-XRF cannot be used
for single particle examinations due to the problems of spatial resolution,
ICP/MS has the drawback of the bulk analysis method, and the other two
methods are still in the phase of research and cannot be used for casework.
tests for GSR examination by SEM/EDX
tests for GSR particles examination were designed. For example the tests
prepared by Collaborative Testing Services, Inc. (CTS) were based on
GSR suspensions in organic solvents. Small volumes of these, containing
10-20 GSR particles were dropped on the SEM stubs. Due to the large
variation among the samples, it was impossible to assess and compare
precisely the proficiency of the various labs participating in the test.
Lately a major advance was achieved in the 2nd ENFSI proficiency test.
In this test conducted by Niewohner from the BKA the stubs were prepared
by microelectronics technology. All the participating laboratories received
the same samples, namely stubs with the same number of pseudo-particles,
in the same locations on the stub and with the same size distribution.
Thus precise proficiency of the procedures and the SEM/EDX equipment
could be evaluated.
GSR and their persistence on various surfaces
showed that there is no substantial danger of concealing GSR particles
by continuous dabbings of hands up to 50 times using double-side adhesive
coated stubs. Pukkila et al.43 studied the analysis of primer GSR and
gunpowder GSR from the same sample. In the proposed method, the adhesive
tape mounted on the stub is first examined by SEM/EDX for the inorganic
GSR residues and after removing the tape from a stub it is used for
the detection of organic residues by SFE/GC analysis. Jalanti et al.44
conducted a study on the persistence of GSR on shooters hands. They
observed again the known experimental result that there is a rapid GSR
particle count drop as a function of postfiring collection time, with
the largest loss occurring in the first two to four hours. The study
showed a poor reproducibility in particle counts from shot to shot.
Chavez et al.45 showed that laundering clothing does not always completely
remove GSR. Kimmett46 conducted a study on the incidence of GSR transferred
to paper bag hand covers.
In a series
of papers Andrasko47, 48, 49, 50 et al. presented a novel method for
estimation of time since discharge for some types of weapons and spent
cartridge cases. Using SPME, samples are taken from the atmosphere inside
the barrel of the weapon or the cartridge case and analyzed by either
GC/TEA or GC/FID (MS), both of which can detect a variety of combustion
products. Estimation of time since last discharge is based on the escape
rate of the volatile discharge residues from the barrel or the cartridge
case as a function of time. The method was studied for shotguns, rifles
and spent cartridges cases. For the former the method could give an
indication whether a weapon was fired, e.g., 2 to 3 days, 1 to 2 weeks
or more than 3 weeks ago.
In a series
of papers Glattstein et al.51, 52, 53 presented improved method for
shooting distance estimation on clothing, exhibits that many of them
cannot be brought to the laboratory for examination (e.g., cars, walls,
doors and windows) and human bodies. The novel part of the method includes
transfer of the gunpowder residues from an exhibit to an adhesive lifter.
The Modified Griess Test (MGT) is carried out after alkaline hydrolysis
of the gunpowder residues on the adhesive lifter. The widely used MGT
detects only free nitrite ions. The unburned smokeless powder particles
cannot be detected by MGT without the hydrolysis step. In some ammunition
the effect of this step may be very dramatic. Haag et al.54 conducted
a study comparing various simulants to human skin regarding shooting
distance estimation, based on the visual examination of the obtained
patterns around the bullet entrance hole. They found that the best simulant
was fresh pig skin, twill jean cloth, Whatman #1 blotter paper and Whatman
#10 Benchkote. Brown et al.55 reported in two papers about an automated
image analysis of GSR in and around gunshot wound. They found that there
was a non-linear decreasing relationship between firing range and amount
of GSR deposited, and that there was significant variation in the amount
of GSR deposited from repeated shots fired from the same distance. Vinokurov
et al.56 examined the influence of machine washing or brushing of clothing
on shooting distance estimation. Results show that those treatments
decrease considerably the amount and density of GSR around the bullet
Firearms - Wound ballistics
the mechanisms by which penetrating projectiles disrupt the living tissues
permits a good estimation of the bullet's mass, velocity shape and construction.
Quatrehomme et al.57 and Berryman et al.58 published two papers on the
subject. Peculiar wound characteristics which result from odd behavior
of the bullets, from the use of unusual ammunition or weapons were examined
by Druid et al.59, De Roux et al.60, Rothschild et al.61, and Karger
et al.62. In-depth description of wound ballistics in modern war and
injuries secondary to ammunitions are presented by Kopchinski et al.63,
Hiss et al.64, Grellner et al.65 and Di Maio66. Mortality from firearms
depends not only on the technology of the weapon or its ammunition,
but also on the context in which it is used. An exhaustive review of
the literature related various factors explained in terms of wound ballistics
was described by Coupland et al.67.
Miller-J, Criteria for Identification
of Toolmarks, AFTE; 1998; V30 (1); P15-61
- Miller-J, Criteria
for Identification of Toolmarks Part II. Single Land Impression Comparisons,
AFTE; 2000; V32 (2); P116-131
The Application of Numerical Criteria for Identification in Casework
Involving Magazine Marks and Land Impressions, AFTE; 2001; V33 (1);
Consecutive Matching Striation Criteria: A General Critique, JOURNAL
OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (5); September; P955-962
An Examination of Two Consecutively Rifled Barrels and a Review of the
Literature, AFTE; 2000; V32 (3); P259-270
The Identification of Consecutively Rifled Gun Barrels, AFTE; 1998;
V30 (3); P438-444
Grew-S, Consecutively Machined Ruger Bolt Faces, AFTE; 2000; V32 (1);
De-Kinder-J, The Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Identification
of Bullets and Cartridge Cases - A Review of the Literature, SCIENCE
& JUSTICE HARROGATE; 1999; V39 (1(; P3-10
- Bonfanti-M-S; De-Kinder-J,
The Influence of the Use of Firearms on their Characteristic Marks,
AFTE; 1999; V31 (3); P318-323
Automated Firearms Evidence Comparison Using the Integrated Ballistic
Identification System (IBIS™(, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING; 1998; V3576; P94-103
Koffman-A, IBIS Correlation Results - Improvements, AFTE; 2000; V32
- Koffman-A; Silverwater-H,
Correlation Results - Analyzing Methodology and Reliability Factor,
Note: AFTE in press.
- Giverts-P; Argaman-U;
Shoshani-E, An Average Phase Scoring for Bullets, in the IBISTM Correlation
Results, Note: The article was submitted to AFTE.
The Relationship between Acquisition Positions of Cartridge Cases and
Discrepancy in Correlation Scores on IBIS™, AFTE; 2000; V32 (4); P337-341
- Geradts-Z; Bijhold-J;
Hermsen-R, Pattern Recognition in a Database of Cartridge Cases, PROCEEDINGS
OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING; 1998; V3576; P104-115
Automated Systems of Ballistic Identification, PROBLEMY-KRYMINALISTIKI;
1999; V225; P17-29
"FireBall" Firearm Identification System, AFTE; 2000; V32
Chabottier-A; Celens-E; De-Kinder-J; Van-Ham-P, Feature Extraction of
Optical Projectiles Images, SCIENCE & JUSTICE HARROGATE; 1999; V39
System - Microprocessor Technology Applied to Precision Trigger Pull
Analyses, AFTE; 1999; V31 (2); P123-130
Argaman-U; Silverwater-H; Hocherman-G; Shoshani-E, TriggerScan™
Computerized Trigger Pull System, AFTE; 1999; V31 (4); P449-456
Accuracy Testing on Dvorak Instruments' TriggerScan™ System, AFTE; 2000;
V32 (4); P364-366
Prevot-P; Pirlot-M; Nys-B, Surface Topology of Bullet Striations; An
Innovating Technique, AFTE; 1998; V30 (2); P294-299
Bonfanti-M, Automated Comparisons of Bullet Striations Based on 3D Topography,
FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL; 1999; V101 (2); P85-93
- De-Kinder-J; Nys-B,
Recording Fingerprints on Cartridge Cases by 3D Laser Topography, JOURNAL
OF FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION; 2000; V50 (3); P271-275
Frangible Bullets; A Firearms Examiner's Nightmare, AFTE; 1998; V30
Klose-R; Fossum-R; Di-Maio-V-J-M, Centerfire Frangible Ammunition: Wounding
Potential and Other Forensic Concerns, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC
MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY; 1998; V19 (4); P299-302
- Kaplan-J; Klose-R;
Fossum-R; Di-Maio-V-J-M, Centerfire Frangible Ammunition: Wounding Potential
and Other Forensic Concerns, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND
PATHOLOGY; 1998; V19 (4); P299-302
The Design, Composition, Exterior Ballistic-, Terminal Ballistic - and
Wound Ballistic Properties of Contemporary Frangible Ammunition, AFTE;
1999; V31 (3); P344-362
U.S. Military "Green Bullet", AFTE; 1999; V31 (4); P493-494
Tungsten Frangible Bullet Wounds in Pig: Exam by Autopsy and X-Rays,
WOUND BALLISTICS REVIEW; 2000; V4 (3); P33-34
McVicar-M-J; Randall-E-D; Sild-E-H, Gunshot Residue-Similar Particles
Produced by Fireworks, JOURNAL CANADIAN SOCIETY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE;
1998; V31 (2); P157-168
Capra-M; Ferrari-F; Bizzaro-G-P; Di-Tullio-D; Dell-Olio-M; Ghitti-A,
Gunshot Residue - Further Studies on Particles of Environmental and
Occupational Origin, FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL; 1999; V103 (1);
Tsach-T, Bergman-P, Springer-E, A Survey of titanium and zinc particles
in samples collected from suspects, Proceeding of the 2nd Meeting of
the ENFSI, Cracov, Poland, September 16-20, 2000.
Schecter-B; Brener-R, Antimony Enrichment on the Bullets' Surfaces and
the Possibility of Finding It in Gunshot Residue (GSR) of the Ammunition
Having Antimony-Free Primers, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1998; V43
(3); May; P493-501
Kumihashi-M; Shibayama-T, The Contribution of Trace Elements from Smokeless
Powder to Post Firing Residues, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1998;
V43 (1); P90-96
Lentz-H-P; Lee-K-R, Analysis of Gunshot Residue Using Variable Pressure
Scanning Electron Microscopy on Samples Collected from Skin, Clothing,
and Vehicle Interiors, (Electron Microscopy 1998. Paper Presented at
ICEM14, Cancun, Mexico, 31 August to 4 September 1998; Ed. Calderon
Benavides H.A. and Jose Yacaman M.), PROCEEDINGS; 1998; P487-488
Stoilovic-M; Lennard-C; Prior-I; Kobus-H, Evaluation of X-Ray Microfluorescence
Spectrometry for the Elemental Analysis of Firearm Discharge Residues,
FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL; 1998; V97 (1); October; P21-36
Desrochers-C, Analysis of Primer Residue From Lead Free Ammunition by
X-Ray Microfluorescence, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (2);
Analysis of Gunshot Primer Residue Collection Swabs by Inductively Coupled
Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1998; V43 (4);
Wenz-H-W, Applications of Focused Ion Beam Systems in Gunshot Residue
Investigation, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1999; V44 (1); P105-109
Bard-D; Gros-L; Wenz-H-W; Yarwood-J; Williams-K, Raman Microscopic Identification
of Gunshot Residues, JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; 1998; V29; P787-790
Is There a Real Danger of Concealing Gunshot Residue (GSR) Particles
by Skin Debris Using the Tape-lift Method for Sampling GSR from Hands?,
JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, November 2001.
Gunaratnam-L, The Analysis of Inorganic and Organic GSRs From the Same
Sample, Presented at the IAFS Meeting, Los Angles, USA, August 1999.
- Jalanti-T; Henchoz-P;
Gallusser-A; Bonfanti-M-S, The Persistence of Gunshot Residue on Shooters'
Hands, SCIENCE & JUSTICE HARROGATE; 1999; V39 (1); P48-52
- Chavez-D; Crowe-C
Franco-L, The Retention of Gunshot Residues on Clothing After Laundering,
(IAMA) Int. Assoc. Micro. Ana., Vol.2, Issue. 1.
- Kimmet-M-J, Incidence
of Gunshot Residues Transferred to Paper Bag Hand Covers, (IAMA) Int.
Assoc. Micro. Ana., Vol.1, Issue. 3
Norberg-T; Stahling-S, Time Since Discharge of Shotguns, JOURNAL OF
FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1998; V43 (5); September;
- A Novel Application
of Time Since the Latest Discharge of a Shotgun in a Suspect Murder,
Andersson-C; Andrasko-J, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1998), 44, 179-181
- Andrasko-J; Stahling-S,
Time Since Discharge of Spent Cartridges, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES;
1999; V44 (3); P487-495
Stahling-S, Time Since Discharge of Rifles, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES;
2000; V45 (6); P1250-1255
Vinokurov-A; Levin-N; Zeichner-A, Improved Method for Shooting Distance
Estimation. Part 1. Bullet Holes in Clothing Items, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC
SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (4); P801-806
Zeichner-A; Vinokurov-A; Shoshani-E, Improved Method for Shooting Distance
Determination. Part 2 - Bullet Holes in Objects that Cannot be Processed
in the Laboratory, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (5); September;
Zeichner-A; Vinokurov-A; Levin-N; Kugel-C; Hiss-J, Improved Method for
Shooting Distance Estimation. Part III. Bullet Holes in Cadavers, JOURNAL
OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (6); P1243-1249
Wolberg-G, Scientific Examination and Comparison of Skin Simulants for
Distance Determinations, AFTE; 2000; V32 (2); P136-142
Cauchi-D-M; Holden-J-L; Wrobel-H; Cordner-S, Image Analysis of Gunshot
Residue on Entry Wounds I - The Technique and Preliminary Study, FORENSIC
SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL; 1999; V100; P163-177
- Vinokurov-A.; Zeichner-A.;
Glattstein-B; Koffman-A; Levin-N; Rosengarten-A, Machine Washing or
Brushing of Clothing and the Influence on Shooting Distance Estimation,
JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2001; V46 (4); P160-165
Iscan-M-Y, Characteristics of Gunshot Wounds in the Skull, JOURNAL OF
FORENSIC SCIENCES; 1999; V44 (3); P568-576
Gunther-W-M, Keyhole Defect Production in Tubular Bone, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC
SCIENCES; 2000; V45 (2); P483-487
Ward-M-E, Incomplete Shored Exit Wounds - A Report of Three Cases, AMERICAN
JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY; 2000; V21 (3); P220-224
Prendergast-N-C; Tamburri-R, Wounding Characteristics of Glaser Safety
Ammunition: A Report of Three Cases, JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES; 2001;
V46 (1); P160-164
Vendura-K, Fatal Neck Injuries Caused by Blank Cartridges, FORENSIC
SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL; 1999; V101 (2); P151-159
Rand-S-P, Multiple Entrance Wounds from One Bullet Due to the Use of
a Silencer, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY; 1998;
V19 (1); P30-33
Lein-B, U.S. Army noncombat munitions injuries, Military Medicine 2001
- Hiss-J, Kahana-T,
Modern war wounds. In: Mason JK, Purdue B, The pathology of trauma.
London: Arnold, 2000.
- Grellner-W; Madea-B,
Comparison of wound morphology following gunshots by machine guns and
sub-machine guns, Arch Kriminol 1999 January-February; 203(1-2): 32-39.
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and Laboratory Medicine 1998 June; 18(2): 189-201.
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Mortality associated with use of weapons in armed conflicts, wartime
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