The Zapruder Film "Anomalies"

     It is impossible to correct every error in Assassination Science. There's just not enough time in my lifetime or enough hard drive space on my server. But I will attempt to address some of the "anomalies" which its authors have claimed are in the Zapruder film and will expand this article to cover other "anomalies" in the future.
     1. On page 321 Dr. Mantik notes that the B&W (negative) example of Zapruder frame 316 on page 322 shows the shadow of a woman broken into two parts. The optical illusion is partly due to the extremely poor quality of the film which Marler rented. After many generations of copying, a print will build up contrast. But if Mantik had simply compared frame 316 to frame 313 on page 262 as published by the Warren Commission, he would have seen that the upper line was always there in the upper sprocket hole area several frames back. When the shadow disappears into the sprocket hole area, we can still see the line above it in the upper sprocket hole area which has been there for many frames.
Below is frame 316 from page 322 which I have converted from negative to positive::
Z-316 from page 322 showing what Mantik claims is a broken shadow

Below is frame 314 from the Warren Commission exhibits which shows the preexisting contrast line:
Z-314 from the WC exhibits showing the preexisting contrast line

    So, what is that preexisting line? It is a line of contrast, as can be seen even in the color copy of frame 313. It is the bottom edge of the ghost image in the upper sprocket hole area. The ghost image is a double exposure and in this instance the source for the double exposure was lighter than the dark grass so the difference between the two exposures created a contrast line at the bottom edge of the upper sprocket hole ghost image area (or tab). On better quality prints you can see that the woman's shadow fades out as it goes farther into the sprocket hole area, but it is still there. So, the line is not broken. The upper line was always there.
Below is a color copy of frame 313 showing the brightness of the upper sprocket hole ghost image:

     I would urge you to buy the MPI release of the Zapruder film to see the evidence for yourself. Most of the supposed "anomalies" do not exist in the original Zapruder film and are merely artifacts of bad handling and poor copying. One caveat, however. MPI could not correct all the damage that was done to the original Zapruder film when LIFE had possession of it. Several frames are missing, such as 155, 156, 208, 209, 210, 211, 484, 485, and 486, and frame 212 is still a splice with frame 207. In addition, MPI made a couple of mistakes of their own. Frames 331 and 332 are reversed.